At the beginning of the 20th century, Lemnos was under Ottoman rule. The administrative, commercial and educational centre of the island was Kastro (the castle, today's Myrina). Up until the end of the 19th century, the island's capital had been transformed by the contribution of wealthy ship owners and immigrants from Lemnos, that built impressive mansions on Romeikos Gialos (Greek Seaside). The most important settlement of the island after Kastro was Moudros.

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